Ultimate Guide To Long-exposure | Photography
Long-exposure photography is a technique that allows you to capture stunning and surreal images by manipulating the shutter speed of your camera. It involves using longer exposure times, typically several seconds or more, to capture motion and create unique effects.
In this ultimate guide to long-exposure photography, we will explore the basics, essential equipment, setting up for a shoot, creating stunning effects, troubleshooting common issues, and post-processing tips.
Understanding the concept of long-exposure photography is essential. It involves capturing scenes over an extended period, resulting in the blurring of moving objects or creating smooth and dreamy effects. The use of long exposures can add a sense of motion, bring out intricate details, and transform everyday scenes into captivating works of art.
To get started, you need the right equipment. A camera capable of manual mode and long exposure settings, a sturdy tripod to keep your camera steady during long exposures, and neutral density filters to control the amount of light entering the camera are essential for long-exposure photography.
Setting up for a successful long-exposure shoot involves choosing the right location with interesting subjects, using a tripod to stabilize your camera, and understanding how different shutter speeds affect your final image.
Once you have the basics covered, you can experiment with various techniques to create stunning long-exposure effects. From capturing smooth water reflections to capturing light trails and creating motion blur, the possibilities are endless in long-exposure photography.
Common issues in long-exposure photography, such as camera shake and overexposure, require special attention and troubleshooting techniques. Post-processing tips can further enhance your long-exposure images by fine-tuning the colors, contrast, and composition.
To inspire your creativity, we will showcase some breathtaking examples of long-exposure photography to spark your imagination and encourage you to explore and experiment with this captivating technique. With this ultimate guide, you will gain the knowledge and confidence to create truly mesmerizing long-exposure photographs.
- Long-exposure photography allows for stunning creative effects: By using long exposures, photographers can create smooth water effects, light trails, and motion blur, adding a unique and artistic touch to their images.
- Essential equipment for long-exposure photography: To capture the best long-exposure shots, photographers need a camera with manual controls, a tripod for stability, and neutral density filters to control light and extend exposure times.
- Troubleshooting and tips for better long-exposure photography: Techniques for minimizing camera shake, dealing with overexposure, and post-processing tips can help photographers achieve better results and enhance the quality of their long-exposure images.
The Basics of Long-Exposure Photography
Photo Credits: Homepointmedia.Com by Vincent Moore
Long-exposure photography, also known as slow-shutter photography, is a popular technique that allows photographers to capture stunning images with extended exposure times.
During this process, the camera's shutter is left open for a longer period, resulting in creative effects like light trails, motion blur, and smooth water. To achieve successful long-exposure photos, it is important to understand and apply the basics of this technique.
One essential aspect is to ensure camera stability and sharpness in focused areas of the image. This can be achieved by using a sturdy tripod, which provides the necessary support and eliminates any unwanted camera shake.
Another technique to minimize camera shake is to use a remote shutter release or self-timer, as they allow you to trigger the shutter without physically touching the camera. By doing so, you can obtain sharper final images.
In addition to stability, reducing digital noise is crucial for a cleaner and more professional look. One way to achieve this is by setting a low ISO value, such as 100 or 200, which reduces the camera's sensitivity to light. This helps to minimize noise in the final image, particularly in darker areas.
Another important aspect to consider is the depth of field. By using a small aperture, such as f/8 or higher, you can increase the depth of field and keep more elements in focus. This is particularly useful when photographing landscapes or scenes with multiple subjects, as it allows you to capture sharpness from foreground to background.
To truly master long-exposure photography, it is essential to extend the shutter speed for longer exposure times. By doing so, you can capture captivating light trails and blur movement, adding a sense of motion and artistic flair to your photographs. This technique can transform an ordinary scene into a mesmerizing display of creativity.
By familiarizing yourself with the basics of long-exposure photography and putting them into practice, both amateur and professional photographers can capture stunning images with unique effects. So grab your camera, tripod, and remote shutter release, and get ready to explore the possibilities of this captivating technique.
What is Long-Exposure Photography?
Long-exposure photography, also known as "What is Long-Exposure Photography?," is a fascinating technique used by photographers to capture unique and artistic images.
This technique involves leaving the camera's shutter open for an extended duration, allowing more light to enter the lens. By doing so, photographers can create stunning effects that are not commonly seen in traditional photography.
Long-exposure photography allows photographers to capture movement and convey a sense of motion in their images. This can be particularly captivating when used to capture smooth water effects, such as silky waterfalls or calm ocean waves.
Additionally, this technique can also capture mesmerizing light trails produced by moving objects like cars or stars. By employing long exposures, photographers can produce stunning photographs that possess a sense of movement even in stationary subjects through motion blur.
To achieve successful long-exposure photography, certain equipment is essential. Firstly, a camera with manual settings is necessary to have full control over the shutter speed, which determines the length of exposure.
This capability enables photographers to adjust and experiment with different exposure settings for their desired effect. Additionally, a tripod is crucial to keep the camera stable and prevent blurriness caused by camera shake. Furthermore, photographers can utilize neutral density filters to decrease the amount of light entering the lens, allowing for longer exposure times and more creative possibilities.
Long-exposure photography has a rich history, dating back to the early days of photography. In fact, the first recognized long-exposure photograph was taken by Louis Daguerre in 1838. This photograph beautifully captured a bustling street scene in Paris, showcasing the potential of this technique.
Since then, photographers have continued to push the boundaries of long-exposure photography, experimenting with its various applications and refining their skills. Today, long-exposure photography remains a popular and highly creative approach for photographers to capture the world in a unique and artistic way.
Why Use Long Exposures in Photography?
Long exposures in photography offer artistic opportunities and can create stunning effects in images.
1. Capture motion: Long exposures capture the movement of subjects like waterfalls, rivers, and clouds, adding dynamism to photos.
2. Light trails: Long exposures capture light trails created by moving vehicles or other light sources, creating abstract patterns and adding interest to images.
3. Smooth water effects: Longer exposures make water appear smooth and silky, giving it a dreamy quality. This effect works well with seascapes, lakes, and waterfalls.
4. Low-light situations: Long exposures allow more light to reach the camera sensor in low-light conditions, resulting in brighter and clearer images. This is useful for nighttime photography or shooting in dimly lit environments.
5. Creative expression: Long exposures offer endless possibilities for creative experimentation, allowing you to play with light and time and convey emotions through your images.
Understanding the possibilities and benefits of long exposures can expand your creative horizons and help you capture captivating images. So, next time you're out shooting, consider using long exposures to add depth, movement, and magic to your photos.
Essential Equipment for Long-Exposure Photography
Photo Credits: Homepointmedia.Com by Benjamin Green
When it comes to mastering the art of long-exposure photography, having the right equipment is essential. In this section, we'll dive into the must-have gear that will take your long-exposure shots to the next level.
From a high-quality camera to a sturdy tripod and the magic of neutral density filters, we'll uncover the secrets behind capturing those stunning time-bending shots. So, get ready to gear up and unleash your creativity in the world of long-exposure photography!
When it comes to long-exposure photography, the right camera is essential. The camera you use determines the quality and capabilities of your long-exposure images.
Camera Type Features
DSLR DSLR cameras are popular among photographers due to their versatility and ability to capture high-quality images in various lighting conditions. They offer manual controls, interchangeable lenses, and advanced features like long exposure capabilities.
Mirrorless Mirrorless cameras are compact and lightweight but still offer excellent image quality and manual controls. They are a great option for long-exposure photography as they often have electronic shutters, reducing the risk of camera shake.
Point-and-Shoot Point-and-shoot cameras are compact and easy to use, but they may have limited manual controls. They can still capture decent long-exposure images, especially in well-lit conditions, but may not offer as much flexibility as DSLRs or mirrorless cameras.
When choosing a camera for long-exposure photography, consider the resolution, ISO range, and dynamic range. Higher resolution cameras capture more details, while a wide ISO range and dynamic range allow you to capture images with better exposure in different lighting conditions.
Cameras have come a long way since their invention in the early 19th century. Technological advancements have revolutionized the world of photography, allowing photographers to capture stunning long-exposure images.
The evolution of camera technology continues to push the boundaries of what can be achieved in photography, opening up endless possibilities for artistic expression.
A tripod is essential for long-exposure photography. It provides stability, eliminates camera shake, and ensures sharp and clear images.
- Stability: A tripod keeps the camera steady, preventing blurriness caused by shaky hands or movement.
- Longer exposure times: Tripods allow for longer exposure times, capturing stunning effects like smooth water or light trails.
- Composition: With a tripod, you have more time and freedom to precisely compose your shot, ensuring a balanced and well-framed image.
- Flexibility: Tripods have adjustable legs and heads, enabling you to position your camera at different angles and heights, increasing creativity in your shots.
- Reduced camera fatigue: Holding a camera for long periods can cause fatigue and decreased stability. Tripods eliminate this issue, allowing for longer shooting sessions.
When choosing a tripod, consider factors such as weight, height, stability, and ease of use. Look for a durable and sturdy option that can support the weight of your camera and any additional accessories. Investing in a quality tripod is worthwhile for any serious long-exposure photographer.
Neutral Density Filters
Neutral density filters are essential for achieving stunning and creative effects in long-exposure photography. They reduce the amount of light entering the camera, allowing for longer exposure times. With these filters, photographers can capture motion blur, smooth water effects, and other striking long-exposure effects.
|Filter Type||Light Reduction||Effect|
|ND2||1-stop reduction||Slight motion blur|
|ND4||2-stop reduction||Medium motion blur|
|ND8||3-stop reduction||Significant motion blur|
|ND64||6-stop reduction||Smooth water effects|
|ND1000||10-stop reduction||Long light trails|
When choosing neutral density filters, consider the amount of light reduction needed for the desired effect. Higher stop reductions will result in longer exposure times and more pronounced effects. Also, make sure the filter size matches the camera lens diameter.
Pro-tip: Use a tripod when using neutral density filters to keep the camera stable during longer exposures. This will prevent unintentional camera shake and ensure sharp, clear images.
Setting Up for Long-Exposure Photography
When it comes to capturing stunning long-exposure photographs, the first crucial step is setting up for success. In this section, we'll guide you through the essential preparations needed to achieve breathtaking shots.
From selecting the perfect location that complements your artistic vision, to stabilizing your camera with a reliable tripod, and mastering the art of shutter speed, we'll equip you with the knowledge and techniques to elevate your long-exposure photography game. Get ready to embark on a mesmerizing journey of creativity and visual storytelling.
Choosing the Right Location
When it comes to long-exposure photography, the right location is crucial. Here are some key factors to consider:
- Scenic beauty: Look for visually appealing elements like natural landscapes, water bodies, city skylines, or architectural landmarks.
- Interesting subjects: Find subjects with movement or unique characteristics, such as flowing water, moving clouds, or busy streets. These subjects contribute to the overall effect of the long exposure.
- Lighting conditions: Assess available lighting conditions, including the sun's position, angle, and light quality. Golden hour and blue hour are popular times for long-exposure photography due to their soft and warm light.
- Noise and distractions: Avoid areas with excessive noise or distractions that could interfere with your composition. Look for quieter locations to focus on capturing the desired effect.
- Safety and accessibility: Consider the location's safety, especially if photographing at night or in remote areas. Ensure easy accessibility to set up your camera and equipment securely.
- Environmental conditions: Take into account weather conditions and how they might affect your shoot. For example, windy conditions can cause camera shake, and rain may not be ideal for long-exposure photography.
By carefully considering these factors, you can select a location that will enhance and complement your long-exposure photographs, resulting in stunning images.
Using a Tripod to Stabilize the Camera
Using a tripod to stabilize the camera is essential for achieving sharp and detailed images, especially in long-exposure photography. To ensure stability, you should set up a stable tripod with sturdy legs that can support the weight of your camera.
Attach the camera securely using the mounting plate or quick-release system and tighten it to prevent any movement.
Once the camera is securely attached, you can extend the tripod legs to your desired height, taking into consideration the composition and angle you want to capture. It is important to spread the tripod legs evenly to maximize stability. To ensure that the tripod is perfectly straight, you can use the leveling bubble or the camera's built-in level.
After positioning the camera accurately, you can further stabilize it by using a remote shutter release or self-timer to avoid any shake that may be caused by pressing the button manually. It is crucial to avoid touching the camera or tripod during exposure to prevent any unwanted movement or vibrations.
In case of windy or unstable conditions, additional stabilizing techniques can be employed. For example, you can hang a weight or set up a barrier to provide extra stability to the setup. It is always important to review the images after each exposure to check for sharpness and make any necessary adjustments to the tripod position or camera settings.
By using a sturdy tripod, you can capture precise and clear long-exposure images that allow for stunning effects such as smooth water, light trails, and motion blur. So, always remember the importance of using a tripod to stabilize the camera in order to achieve high-quality and captivating photographs.
Understanding Shutter Speed
Understanding shutter speed is essential when it comes to long-exposure photography. It plays a vital role in determining the exposure and creative effects of an image. Shutter speed refers to the duration for which the camera's shutter remains open, allowing light to enter and expose the camera sensor.
In long-exposure photography, slower shutter speeds are used to capture captivating effects like motion blur, light trails, or smooth water. By using shutter speeds of 1/2 second or even longer, more light is able to reach the sensor, resulting in a brighter image. This technique is particularly useful in low-light situations or when capturing the movement of subjects over a period of time.
On the other hand, faster shutter speeds such as 1/500th of a second or shorter are ideal for freezing action and capturing sharp, still subjects.
By experimenting with different shutter speeds, photographers can achieve various creative effects. For instance, a fast shutter speed can freeze water droplets in mid-air, while a slow shutter speed can create a silky smooth effect on flowing water.
Mastering the adjustment and control of shutter speed is crucial for capturing the desired effects in long-exposure photography. It allows photographers to create stunning and unique images that demonstrate the passage of time and capture the essence of the moment.
Creating Stunning Long-Exposure Effects
Discover the secrets of crafting mesmerizing long-exposure effects in your photography. In this section, we'll explore different techniques to create stunning visual experiences through long-exposure photography.
Dive into the art of capturing smooth water effects, painting vibrant light trails, and capturing captivating motion blur. Unleash your creativity and unlock the potential of your camera to bring to life breathtaking moments frozen in time. Get ready to embark on an exhilarating journey into the realm of long-exposure photography.
Creating Smooth Water Effects
To create smooth water effects in long-exposure photography and achieve the desired effect, follow these steps:
- Choose a suitable location with moving water, such as a waterfall, river, or ocean, to create captivating smooth water effects.
- Use a sturdy tripod to keep your camera stable during the exposure, ensuring smooth and silky water appearance in your photographs.
- Attach a neutral density filter, which helps reduce the amount of incoming light and is essential for creating smooth water effects.
- Set your camera to a low ISO setting to minimize image noise and enhance the smoothness of the water.
- Select a slow shutter speed, ranging from a few seconds to several minutes, depending on the desired effect. This will allow the camera to capture the movement of the water and create a smooth effect.
- Compose your shot by focusing on the area of moving water you want to capture, ensuring the smooth water becomes the focal point of your photograph.
- Trigger the shutter using a remote release or self-timer to avoid camera shake and maintain the sharpness of the smooth water.
- Allow the camera to capture the scene for the desired exposure duration, ensuring the water appears smooth and silky in the final image.
- Check the image on your camera's LCD screen to ensure that the water has the desired smoothness and is visually appealing.
- If necessary, adjust the shutter speed or make other changes to achieve the desired smooth water effect in your long-exposure photographs.
Experiment with different locations, shutter speeds, and compositions to create unique and captivating smooth water effects in your long-exposure photographs. By incorporating these steps, you can achieve stunning results and create visually appealing images with smooth water effects.
Creating Light Trails
1. Choose a location with moving lights to create captivating light trails. Find a spot with plenty of movement, such as a busy street or highway interchange.
2. Stabilize your camera using a tripod. Set up a sturdy tripod to keep your camera steady during long exposures. This will effectively prevent camera shake and result in sharp light trails.
3. Adjust your camera settings for optimal results. Switch to manual mode and select a low ISO to reduce image noise. Set the aperture to around f/8 to ensure a good depth of field. Use a longer shutter speed, typically between 10 and 30 seconds, to capture the mesmerizing light trails.
4. Ensure a steady shot with a remote trigger or self-timer. Use a remote trigger or take advantage of the self-timer feature to avoid any camera shake when capturing the shot.
5. Experiment with various compositions to capture unique and interesting light trails. Try different angles and perspectives to add creativity to your photographs. Consider including buildings or landmarks in the frame to provide context and depth.
6. Monitor the exposure to avoid overexposure during long exposures. Keep an eye on the exposure levels by reviewing the image on your camera's LCD screen. Adjust the settings if necessary to achieve the desired outcome.
7. Take multiple shots with different exposure times to achieve different light trail effects. By capturing several shots with varied exposure times, you can later choose the best image during the post-processing stage.
Remember to practice and experiment with different settings and locations to capture captivating light trail photographs. Over time and with experience, you'll be able to take stunning images that beautifully showcase the beauty of light trails.
Creating Motion Blur
To create motion blur in long-exposure photography, follow these steps:
- Choose a subject with movement, such as flowing water, moving cars, or people walking.
- Set up your camera on a stable tripod to prevent camera shake.
- Select a long shutter speed, typically between 1 to 30 seconds, depending on the desired effect.
- Compose your shot and focus on the subject.
- Use a remote shutter release or the camera's self-timer to avoid camera movement during the exposure.
- Press the shutter button and keep it pressed for the desired exposure time.
- The subject's movement during the exposure will create a blurred effect.
By following these steps, you can achieve stunning motion blur in your long-exposure photography. Experiment with different shutter speeds and subjects to create unique and artistic effects.
Troubleshooting and Tips for Better Long-Exposure Photography
Capture stunning long-exposure photographs like a pro with our troubleshooting tips and expert advice. From tackling camera shake to avoiding overexposure, we'll equip you with the knowledge to capture breathtaking shots.
Plus, we'll reveal post-processing tricks to enhance your long-exposure images, ensuring you achieve stunning results every time. Get ready to take your long-exposure photography skills to new heights!
Handling Camera Shake
- Hold your camera properly: Grip your camera with both hands and keep your arms close to your body for stability.
- Use a tripod: Eliminate camera shake by using a tripod, especially in low-light situations or when using longer shutter speeds.
- Use a remote shutter release or self-timer: Reduce camera shake by using a remote shutter release or the self-timer function on your camera.
- Stabilize yourself: Find a stable position by leaning against a wall or bracing yourself on a solid object.
- Adjust your camera settings: Use a fast shutter speed to freeze motion and reduce camera shake. Increase the ISO if needed, but be aware of noise in your images.
- Image stabilization: If your camera or lens has image stabilization, turn it on to compensate for small movements and vibrations.
- Avoid zooming: Set your desired focal length before taking the shot to minimize potential movement from zooming.
- Breathe and be patient: Take a deep breath and exhale slowly before taking the shot to reduce unintentional movements.
Dealing with Overexposure
When dealing with overexposure in long-exposure photography, it is important to follow these steps to avoid any issues. Firstly, check your camera settings, making sure that the ISO is set to a low level and the aperture is small.
This will help in preventing overexposure. Secondly, using a neutral density filter can significantly reduce the amount of light entering the camera, thereby preventing overexposure in bright conditions. Another step you can take is adjusting the exposure compensation if your camera has this feature.
Manually adjusting the exposure settings can help in avoiding overexposure. Lastly, employing bracketing techniques can also be effective. By taking multiple shots at different exposures, including one that is slightly underexposed, you can prevent blown-out highlights.
To further enhance your long-exposure photography and avoid overexposure, consider using the histogram feature. This allows you to check the balance of exposure without any overexposed areas.
Additionally, paying attention to highlights is crucial. Make sure areas like the sky or bright lights are not blown out and adjust your settings accordingly. Lastly, shooting during the golden hour, which is the hour after sunrise or before sunset, can provide soft and warm light that is less likely to cause overexposure.
Post-Processing Tips for Long-Exposure Images
When it comes to post-processing long-exposure images, there are several useful tips that can enhance your photos.
First and foremost, it is recommended to shoot in RAW format as it provides flexibility in post-processing. This allows you to adjust and fine-tune various aspects of the image to achieve the desired result.
Another important aspect of post-processing long-exposure images is noise reduction. By using noise reduction techniques, you can effectively reduce unwanted noise that may be present in your photos. This helps in improving the overall quality and clarity of the image.
Adjusting the white balance settings is also crucial when working with long-exposure images. This allows you to achieve the desired color temperature and ensures that the colors in your photo appear natural and accurate.
Selective sharpening is another technique that can greatly enhance the details in your long-exposure images. By applying selective sharpening, you can make specific areas of the photo stand out and appear more defined and crisp.
Experimenting with contrast and exposure levels is also highly recommended for long-exposure images. This can add depth and bring out the details in your photos, making them more visually appealing.
Long-exposure photography has a rich history dating back to the 19th century and has gained significant popularity in the early 20th century. Today, with advancements in digital photography, long-exposure techniques have become more accessible to photographers of all skill levels.
So go ahead and try out these post-processing tips for your long-exposure images and see the difference they can make in enhancing your photos.
Inspiration and Examples of Long-Exposure Photography
Photo Credits: Homepointmedia.Com by James Jackson
Inspiration and examples of long-exposure photography can fuel creativity and help capture stunning images. Noteworthy examples include:
- Cityscape: Capture mesmerizing light trails of cars on a busy city street at night, adding a sense of movement and energy.
- Seascape: Create a dreamy effect with smooth, silky waves crashing against the shore.
- Light painting: Use light sources to paint patterns and shapes in the dark, resulting in vibrant and abstract images.
- Star trails: Capture the mesmerizing rotation of the Earth by taking a long exposure of the night sky, revealing stars as streaks.
- Waterfalls: Highlight the flowing water of a waterfall with a longer exposure, creating a smooth and ethereal effect.
By exploring these examples, one can find inspiration and ideas for their own creative pursuits. Remember to experiment with different settings and techniques to achieve desired results. Allow imagination to guide you as you embark on your long-exposure photography journey.
Some Facts About Ultimate Guide To Long-exposure Photography:
- ✅ Long exposure photography is a technique that involves using slow shutter speeds to create unique and creative effects in photographs. (Source: Expert Photography)
- ✅ Neutral density filters are essential equipment for long exposure photography as they help control the amount of light entering the camera. (Source: Expert Photography)
- ✅ Long exposure photography can be used to capture various types of images, including landscapes, cityscapes, star photographs, and more. (Source: Expert Photography)
- ✅ Understanding exposure, including shutter speed, ISO, and aperture, is crucial for achieving good results in long exposure photography. (Source: Expert Photography)
- ✅ Long exposure photography allows for creative techniques such as capturing motion blur, light trails, cloud movement, intentional camera movement, panning, and more. (Source: Expert Photography)
Frequently Asked Questions
What is long exposure photography?
Long exposure photography is a technique that involves using slow shutter speeds to capture motion in a single image.
It is commonly used by landscape, architecture, portrait, and street photographers to create unique and creative effects, such as blurring moving elements like water, cars, or clouds.
What equipment do I need for long exposure photography?
To capture long exposure photos, you will need a camera with manual functions, a sturdy tripod, a remote shutter release, and neutral density filters. The camera should have the ability to manually adjust settings such as ISO, aperture, and shutter speed.
A tripod is necessary to keep the camera steady during long exposures, and a remote shutter release helps reduce camera vibrations. Neutral density filters are used to reduce the amount of light reaching the sensor, allowing for longer exposures in bright conditions.
What are the essential camera settings for long exposure photography?
To achieve satisfying results in long exposure photography, it is recommended to use manual mode, shoot in RAW format, and turn off image stabilization. Set the ISO to the lowest native value for daylight long exposures, while a higher ISO may be necessary for nighttime shots.
The aperture should be set to the sweet spot of the lens for daylight long exposures, and a wider aperture can be used for nighttime long exposures. Manual focus should be used to prevent the camera from refocusing after composing the shot.
How do I calculate the right shutter speed for long exposure photography?
To calculate the appropriate shutter speed, take into consideration any introduced stops from the neutral density filter. There are long exposure calculator apps available that can help determine the correct shutter speed based on the particular filter being used.
Additionally, using Bulb mode, if available on your camera, can enable even longer exposures for capturing the desired effects.
What are some creative techniques I can try with long exposure photography?
Long exposure photography offers a wide range of creative possibilities. You can experiment with intentional camera movement or panning to add dynamic elements to your photographs.
You can also capture stunning star trails, create dreamy long exposure night skies, or use light trails, fireworks, steel wool photography, and light painting to add interest and a sense of fantasy to your images. The technique is versatile and can be used to elevate images in various genres, from landscapes to portraits and street photography.
Can I achieve long exposure effects using a smartphone camera?
Yes, it is possible to create long exposure effects using a smartphone camera. While smartphones may have limitations compared to interchangeable-lens cameras, certain camera apps offer manual control over settings like shutter speed, ISO, and focus.
Additionally, photo stacking techniques can be used to achieve long exposure effects in daylight by combining multiple smartphone photos.