Renaissance Paintings Of Women
Artists have produced sculptures, female portraits, and artworks of women that have become world-renowned throughout recorded history. People have always liked studying the subject of women in art, from the ancient fertility statues to modern-day masterpieces.
Perhaps the artists who crafted these masterpieces were inspired by the intrinsic beauty and curvy contours of the female form.
Famous Female Renaissance Paintings
- The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli
- Portrait of a Young Woman by Sandro Botticelli
- La Belle Ferronnière by Leonardo da Vinci
- Portrait of Ginevra Benci by Leonardo da Vinci
- Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
- Venus of Urbino by Titian
- Young Woman with Unicorn by Raphael
- Portrait of a Lady by Rogier van der Weyden
- Sacred and Profane Love by Titian
- The Game of Chess by Sofonisba Anguissola
- Portrait of a Girl by Antonio del Pollaiuolo and Piero del Pollaiolo
The Birth of Venus by Sandro Botticelli
The idea of the Birth of Venus was inspired by the ancient poet Homer's writings. Venus was said to have arrived on the island of Cythera on a seashell and seafoam following her birth, according to legend. Venus is prominently shown in the center of the painting, emerging from the foam as she rides to land. On the left, Zephyrus is seen carrying the nymph Chloris (also known as "Aura") while blowing the wind to assist Venus. With her robe in hand, a figure known as Pomona, or the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus on the shore. From Zephyrus' lips, the cloak billows in the wind.
In some ways, the Primavera's composition is comparable to this one. Venus appears somewhat off-center and isolated against the background, with no other figures overlapping her. She leans in an odd contrapposto-like pose with a small inclination of the head. Botticelli was fascinated by the way women wore their long hair in the late fifteenth century, therefore he paid close attention to her hair and hairstyle. He created Venus an idealized face that is astonishingly free of imperfections, and he shaded her face nicely to distinguish a lighter and a darker side.
The nudity of Venus is obviously important in this painting. With a few exceptions in special circumstances, depicting nude women was not common in the Middle Ages. Botticelli modeled this image after an Aphrodite statue, such as the Aphrodite of Cnidos, in which the goddess is seen attempting to hide in a modest gesture. Botticelli drew a dark line around the curves of Venus's torso when painting her. This enhanced the contrast between her bodily features and the background, as well as the color of her milky skin. As a result of all of this, Venus's flesh almost appears to be composed of marble, emphasizing the sculpturesque aspect of her figure.
Humanism, which was alive and strong in the 1480s at the court of Lorenzo d'Medici, was, of course, the need for this type of scene. In this case, Renaissance humanism was not only willing to utilize a pagan sculpture as a model but also to employ a pagan story as the subject matter. Despite the fact that the Birth of Venus does not utilize Renaissance perspectival advances, the refinement of the classical subject matter would have piqued the interest of wealthy Florentines who demeaned this type of art.
It would not have appealed to everyone, such as those who saw the ruling Medici family's worldly manner as corrupt or disgusting. When the preacher Savonarola proclaimed his crusade to the people of Florence in the 1490s, the tension that emerged from the struggle between courtly extravagance and those who wanted religious reform reached a pinnacle. Botticelli was one of many influenced by the preacher, and his change of heart led him to burn some of his early paintings.
Portrait of a Young Woman by Sandro Botticelli
Simonetta Vespucci is supposed to be the subject of the picture. Many people thought she was the most attractive woman in Florence at the time. She would subsequently portray Giuliano de' Medici's love interest, who was a member of the famous de' Medici clan and one of the wealthiest supporters of the arts. Her appearance is highly stylized and rich, which is pretty intriguing. Even by the standards of Florence in the 15th century, the appearance of ribbons, feathers, and what looks to be a wig is believed to be excessively extravagant and unrealistic.
This raises some interesting concerns about Botticelli's sentiments for Vespucci. Botticelli never married, a fact that some attribute to his unrequited love for Simonetta Vespucci. He had also requested that when he died, he be buried at the foot of her grave. She died young, at the age of 23, in 1476, and it is possible that she'd be the subject of many more Botticelli paintings. He died in 1510, at the age of 64, at the age of 64.
Botticelli is recognized for his use of flowing lines, as seen in works like Madonna and Child and (probably most famously) The Birth of Venus. Later artists during the Renaissance period would be influenced by this. Portrait of a Young Woman, on the other hand, takes a small detour. Because he picked a dark background, it appears as if he wished to portray the subject's grace and perhaps regal nature. Botticelli's previous works featured intricate backdrops and landscapes, thus this was a significant shift.
The effect of black, of course, was to make the woman's exquisite forms and features stand out the more to the onlooker. Her upturned mouth and a figure that partially confronts the observer indicate that she is very much alive rather than merely a model for the painting; perhaps this was Botticelli's aim all along. Sandro Botticelli, also known as Alessandro di Mariano de Vanni Filipepi, was born in Florence in 1445.
Unlike many other renowned painters of his day, nothing is known about his early life aside from the fact that he began his career as a goldsmith before being an apprentice painter at the age of 14. It's also possible that he went to Hungary when he was younger to work under the supervision of Fillippo Lippi. Flat lines and clear outlines between different colors became more prominent in his work as he progressed. Portrait of a Young Woman is one of his most well-known works (sometimes also known as Idealised Portrait of a Lady). It's worth noting that the model for this artwork could have had a significant impact on both his personal and professional lives.
La Belle Ferronnière by Leonardo da Vinci
La Belle Ferronnière is a portrait of a lady in the Louvre that is widely attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. Portrait of an Unknown Woman is another name for it. The title of the painting, which identified the sitter as the wife or daughter of an ironmonger as early as the seventeenth century, was thought to be a subtle reference to a rumored mistress of Francis I of France, wedded to a certain Le Ferron. This is another name for Leonardo's Lady with an Ermine.
This was long thought to be a painting of Cecilia Gallerani, one of Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan's mistresses. When Lady with an Ermine was in Princess Czartoryski's collection, the story and title were added to it, and it was confused with La Belle Ferronnière due to the presence in this painting of a diamond worn on a thin chain across the forehead, known as a ferronnière.
Portrait of Ginevra Benci by Leonardo da Vinci
When Leonardo da Vinci finished this oil on wood painting of Ginevra de Benci in 1474, he was roughly 22 years old and still an apprentice. Ginevra was seventeen years old, well-educated, and descended from a prosperous Florence family. This picture, arguably da Vinci's first, was most likely painted to honor Givenra de Benci's wedding to Luigi Niccolini in the same year. Ginevra de Benci was rumored to be stunning. Da Vinci improved her beauty by painting her skin to be faultless and silky.
He made her ringlets with the ends of his paintbrush. Her gorgeous brown gown features blue ribbon straps, a gold braid, and a gold pin, among other lovely accents. Ginevra de Benci is likewise dressed in a period-appropriate black scarf. She is depicted in front of a Juniper tree, which is a little pun on her name, as "ginepro" is the Italian word for juniper. More trees and a large body of water can be seen in the distance.
To achieve his hazy sky, Da Vinci uses overlay oil glazes to produce a misty look in the background. This painting was revolutionary at the time because it depicted Ginevra de Benci in a three-quarter posture, with her eyes directed at the viewer but not making direct contact. This portrait was described as "very lifelike" by Da Vinci's contemporaries. Ginevra is represented by the juniper, which is also a symbol of purity.
Underneath the painting, art detectives discovered the personal symbol of the Venetian Ambassador to Florence, Bernado Bembo, and they believe he may have commissioned the emblematic artwork on the back. He and Ginevra de Benci were reported to be close friends. Ginevra spent the last part of her life in self-imposed exile, attempting to recover from disease and a disastrous love affair. One of Leonardo da Vinci's early masterpieces, this exquisite painting of Ginevra de Benci captures the beautiful young girl and her thoughts for all time.
Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
The Mona Lisa, by Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most famous paintings in the world. It is now housed at the Louvre in Paris, but it was created in Florence when Leonardo lived there from 1500 to 1508. It is frequently referred to as La Jaconde in French (or La Giaconda in Italian) since it is said to be a picture of Francesco del Giocondo's wife, Lisa (Mona = short for "Madonna" (woman)). Vasari supplied this identification in the sixteenth century, although it was later contested.
The uncertainty over the sitter's identity is likely to have added to the painting's mystique and allure over the years. According to Vasari, the painting was not completed during a four-year period, which could explain the variation in craquelure (surface cracking) between the face and the hands. The painting appears to be a regular portrait of a woman, with her wealth not being the main focus of attention. She's veiled, her arms are crossed, and she has a small smile – or some expression that seems like a smile – that seems to draw the viewer's attention.
The way Leonardo created this portrait differed from the way women were traditionally drawn in Italy. Mona Lisa directs her gaze directly at us, the spectators, which was unusual for a lady in a picture at the time. Her behavior also reflects the standards of the elite among males rather than among women, as she appears content and assured. Furthermore, before this period, portraits of both men and women were often cut off in the middle of the torso and the hands were lifted so that the head, face, and shoulders took up more space on the panel on which the paint was put.
The portrait, on the other hand, depicts not only the woman's head and upper torso but also a large portion of her body down to just below her waist. We can see all of her arms, which are resting peacefully on the armrests of her chair rather than being elevated. This perspective implies that we are viewing the full person rather than simply a portion of her.
Leonardo's approach was novel, and it would kick off a portrait painting movement that would impact European painting well into the 1800s. Leonardo's rendering of the woman's body is nothing short of amazing, and it exemplifies the leap forward in naturalism that Italian artists made between 1400 and 1500. Leonardo employs his sfumato technique to demonstrate how light reflects off her skin in some areas while leaving darker shadows in others.
Venus of Urbino by Titian
The Venus of Urbino is an oil painting by Titian, an Italian painter, that was probably started in 1532 or 1534 and finished in 1534 but not sold until 1538. It shows a naked young woman, often associated with the goddess Venus, lounging on a couch or bed in the opulence of a Renaissance castle. It is now on display in Florence's Galleria degli Uffizi. The figure's stance is modeled on Giorgione's Dresden Venus, for which Titian at least created the landscape.
Titian has civilized Venus in this painting by bringing her indoors, engaging her with the audience, and emphasizing her sexuality; some even claim the figure is masturbating. Venus looks the viewer in the eyes, unconcerned about her nakedness. She holds a posy of roses in her right hand and her other hand over her genitals. A dog, which is frequently used as a symbol of fidelity, may be seen in the background.
Two servants are depicted in the background searching through a cassone chest where garments were kept. The indoor scene is depicted in such depth that it is exceptional, if not unique, in Titian's work. Titian hired Ippolito de' Medici, a 21-year-old who was grudgingly created a cardinal (but not a priest) by his uncle, Pope Clement VII. He was a papal diplomat and was attempting to pursue a military career.
He spent the night in Venice on October 20, 1532, with Angela del Moro, or Angela Zaffetta, a prominent courtesan in Venice who was occasionally a dining partner of Titian and Aretino, the latter a cardinal's acquaintance. Ippolito's portrait was painted by Titian, and it's possible that he was instructed to include a nude painting of Angela Zaffetta, or that Titian chose to paint one in the hopes that he would appreciate it.
Young Woman with Unicorn by Raphael
Raphael's work Portrait of a Young Woman with Unicorn is dated c. 1505-1506 by art historians. It can be found at Rome's Galleria Borghese. The painting was originally oil on panel, but during conservation work in 1934, it was converted to canvas. Overpainting was removed during this process, revealing the unicorn and removing the wheel, cape, and palm fronds that had been painted by an unknown painter in the mid-seventeenth century.
Before the first twentieth-century restoration, the sitter was depicted as St. Catherine of Alexandria, with a wheel and palm frond. The picture's composition—the figure in a loggia looking out onto a landscape, the three-quarter-length format—seems to have been influenced by Leonardo's Mona Lisa, which he painted between 1503 and 1506. "However unapologetically Raphael adopts the attitude, compositional framework, and spatial structure of the Leonardo portrait...the calm watchfulness in the young woman's look is considerably different" from the "enigmatic ambiguity" of Mona Lisa, according to Christof Thoenes. Until recently, the work's provenance was unknown.
The subject of the picture was recognized as Saint Catherine of Alexandria and attributed to Perugino in the Gallery's inventory of 1760. The removal of excessive repainting revealed the unicorn, generally a sign of chastity in medieval romance, in place of a Saint Catherine wheel, during a restoration of the painting in 1934–36, which verified art historian Roberto Longhi's attribution of the piece to Raphael. The picture of a tiny dog, a symbol of conjugal loyalty, was discovered beneath the unicorn during restoration work on the painting in 1959. It served as a rough sketch for the unicorn's final look.
Portrait of a Lady by Rogier van der Weyden
Portrait of a Lady (or Portrait of a Woman) is a tiny oil-on-oak panel work by Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden, completed around 1460. The geometric shapes that define the lines of the couple's veil, neckline, face, and arms, as well as the fall of the light that highlights her face and headdress, make up the composition.
The model's almost unnatural beauty and Gothic grace are enhanced by the striking contrasts of darkness and light. Van der Weyden was focused on commissioned portraits towards the end of his life, and his incisive evocations of character were highly acclaimed by successive generations of painters. Her delicate stature dropped gaze, and tightly clenched fingers portray the woman's humility and guarded demeanor in this piece.
Her narrow shoulders, neatly pinned hair, high forehead, and the intricate frame set by the headdress show that she is slim and represented according to the Medieval ideal of elongated features. Although it is the only known portrait of a lady regarded as an authentic work by van der Weyden, the sitter's identity is unknown and he did not label the painting. Half-length and in three-quarters profile, the woman, who is presumably in her late teens or early twenties, is presented against a two-dimensional inner background of deep blue-green.
The foreground is flat and lacks the careful attention that is characteristic of van der Weyden's devotional paintings. When painting portraits, he used dark planes to draw emphasis to the subject, similar to his contemporary Jan van Eyck. A Netherlandish artist did not set a portrait against an external or landscape until Hans Memling (c. 1435–1494), a disciple of van der Weyden. The flat environment in this work allows the observer to focus on the woman's face and peaceful self-possession. Van der Weyden concentrates on four main aspects of the woman: her headpiece, clothes, face, and hands. The background has darkened with time; the angles generated by the sitter's hennin and clothing were most likely much sharper at one time.
Sacred and Profane Love by Titian
Titian's oil painting Sacred and Profane Love was presumably painted in 1514, beginning in his career. Niccol Aurelio, a member of the Venetian Council of Ten, whose coat of arms is on the tomb or fountain, is thought to have commissioned the painting to commemorate his marriage to Laura Bagarotto, a young widow. It may portray a figure clad in white who sits near Cupid and is joined by the goddess Venus.
A small winged child stands between the two women, who could be Cupid, Venus's son and friend, or simply a putto. He's peering at the water earnestly and splashing his hand in it. The woman on the left is fully and lavishly attired; her garments are now widely recognized as those of a newlywed, though they were once thought to be indicative of courtesan attire. Myrtle, a flower holy to Venus and commonly worn by brides is worn in her hair.
The woman on the right, on the other hand, is completely naked save for a white fabric covering her loins and a huge crimson mantle slung over one shoulder. By the twentieth century, it was widely accepted that, contrary to popular belief, if the image actually depicted figures of Holy and Profane Love, the dressed figure was "profane love," while the naked figure was "sacred love." The naked figure sits comfortably on the trough's ledge, one hand firmly on it and the other raised, holding a device that emits smoke, most likely an incense burner.
In contrast, the poised and easy attitude of the clothed figure becomes weird in the lower half of her body when examined closely: "the lower portion of the bride's figure is lost in her drape and does not match with her upper half" Her knees are wide apart, and she appears to be resting on the ledge incorrectly. Perhaps she is seated on something other than the trough, or this is merely one of Titian's many omissions in describing anatomy during his early career. The dressed woman leans over but is most likely not supported by, a metal bowl, the contents of which have been characterized in numerous ways although they are not visible.
The Game of Chess by Sofonisba Anguissola
She was 23 years old when she painted The Chess Game in 1555. Anguissola painted some relatives of her own family in this painting, which is an intimate depiction of a regular family situation. This, like many of the artist's other portraits of the group, was completed in Spain. She drew inspiration from the individuals in her daily life because she didn't have access to male models. In The Chess Game, she depicted three of her sisters, Lucia (left), Europa (middle), and Minerva (right), in a relaxed moment playing chess, accompanied by the governess who is watching them.
This steward appeared to suggest the morality of the young girls, as well as a comparison in age and class to the royalty of the girls. Anguissola creates a private space for her sisters. In this picture, she placed her sisters in several stances, which, when combined with the variety of texture found in their sisters' clothing, makes all of her talent very obvious.
The game's winner, the sister on the left, is looking at the audience. And the viewer's gaze is drawn around the canvas by all of their gazes. Chess, according to legend, alludes to a battle between the Amazons. Marco Gerolamo Vida, a Cremonese poet and bishop of Alba, wrote a poem in 1550 called Scacchia Ludus (or The Game of Chess), in which he described the queen virgo as "movable in any direction."
The queens had a chance to be resurrected from the pawn. Vida discusses a struggle between two queens in the final section, in which the white queen dies and rises again. Finally, the black queen checkmates the white queen. Anguissola's depiction of a war alludes to the hunt for a triumphant woman. The chessboard becomes an allegory in this case, and the true queens are the two Anguissola sisters, who live virtuously and participate in an educational activity.
Portrait of a Girl by Antonio del Pollaiuolo and Piero del Pollaiolo
The Portrait of a Young Woman is one of the most well-known and well-preserved Renaissance paintings of a woman in profile, credited to one of the two Pollaiolo brothers. It is frequently likened to the Uffizi's Portrait of a Woman, as well as portraits at the Staatliche Museen, the Metropolitan Museum, and the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum. Andrea Della Robbia's Portrait of a Girl also has similar facial traits as The Portrait of a Young Woman.
Traditionally, these paintings have been credited to Piero del Pollaiolo, but modern critics, such as Aldo Galli, have recommended that they be attributed to Antonio. The identity of the woman depicted in this Milanese portrait is unknown. Several names have been suggested, including the wife of banker Giovanni de' Bardi (based on the likely-false writing "UXOR JOHANNIS DE BARDI" on the work's verso), Marietta Strozzi, or a Belgioioso family member. The woman is represented against a blue sky with clouds wrinkled in it. In the usual style of Italian royal portraits, she stands in profile, combining humanistic aspirations with the manner of Ancient Roman medals.
After the idealism of the Renaissance, the airy atmosphere suggests a balance between nature and feminine beauty. The image terminates at the woman's shoulders, with a slight body twist that reveals her neckline. With a clear, expressive line (dubbed the "primacy" of the design), the profile is firmly separated from the background, as is typical of Florentine art in the second half of the 15th century, and particularly the Pollaiolo brothers. Overall, the image is a 15th-century icon of Florentine grandeur. Her attire, jewelry, and ornate haircut all received a lot of attention, emphasizing the woman's noble character and stature. Her corset is low-cut and tight, with a close series of buttons on the front, in a style popular among young people at the time. The velvet sleeve features a simple flower design without the convex effects associated with Flemish paintings. The sleeves of the clothing were one of the most essential components of the garment at the period.
They were frequently interchangeable and jeweled, to the point where they were frequently inventoried as family treasures. The picture's focus on light values, on the other hand, resembles Flemish painting, which uses varied light effects to define the materials represented. The virtuoso effects are enhanced by the sparkle of pearls, the translucency of her hair, and the softness of her complexion. Her hair is styled in the "vespaio" hairdo, which features a pearl design.
A diadem of precious stones sits in the center of the design, holding her hair in an ornate cross that rotates behind her neck, as well as the clear veil that softly conceals her ears. The jewelry she wears (pearl and ruby) have wedding overtones, implying that the image was created as a dowry present or as a sign of a marriage commitment to the groom's family. The pearls allude to virginal purity, while the ruby alludes to the red of love.