Pop Art Movement
Pop Art was born in the United Kingdom in the 1950s, amidst a postwar socio-political climate where artists turned to celebrating commonplace objects and elevating the everyday to the level of fine art.
With roots in Neo-Dada and other movements that questioned the very definition of "art," Pop Art's refreshing return of recognizable iconography drawn from media and popular culture marked a significant reversal in modernism's direction. Pop Art has become one of the most identifiable genres of modern art, maybe due to the inclusion of commercial images.
Pop artists believed that art displayed in museums or taught in schools did not accurately portray the actual world, therefore they turned to modern popular culture for inspiration. Pop Art was dubbed "anti-art" during its peak because it refused to adhere to contemporary art norms at the time.
Who are pop artists?
Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, James Rosenquist, and other American artists would soon follow suit, becoming the movement's most well-known champions in their rejection of traditional historic-artistic subject matter in favor of contemporary society's ever-present infiltration of mass-produced products and images that dominated the visual realm.
Pop Art's Beginnings
Pop art began in the mid-1950s in the United Kingdom and the late 1950s in the United States, and it peaked in the 1960s. It started as a reaction against the prevalent approaches to art and culture, as well as traditional ideas about what art should be.
Pop artists were influenced by consumerist culture (such as comic books, Hollywood films, and advertising) and used the look and style of mass, or 'Popular' culture to create their work. Young painters believed that what they were taught in art school and what they saw in museums had little to do with their daily lives or the things they observed. Instead, they drew inspiration from Hollywood films, advertisements, product packaging, pop music, and comic books.
What is pop art?
Pop art is a lively, colorful, and stimulating art trend that began in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1950s. Pop Art was revolutionary and disturbing when it first appeared, in stark contrast to the abstract expressionism style that came before it.
Pop Art Facts
The Independent Group (IG) is often considered the forerunner of the pop art movement, having been created in London in 1952. They were a group of young painters, sculptors, architects, authors, and critics who were contesting traditional notions of fine art as well as prevalent modernist approaches to culture.
Their group talks focused on the impact of mass advertising, cinema, product design, comic strips, science fiction, and technology on pop culture. Eduardo Paolozzi, a co-founding member, artist, and sculptor, gave a presentation at the inaugural Independent Group meeting in 1952, utilizing a set of collages titled Bunk! that he had assembled during his period in Paris between 1947 and 1949.
What is the meaning of "pop art"?
In the Second Session of the IG in 1955, IG members used the moniker "pop art" in talks, and the word "pop art" first appeared in print in the article "But Today We Collect Ads" by IG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Ark magazine in 1956. However, the word is commonly attributed to Lawrence Alloway, a British art critic, and curator, for his 1958 essay The Arts and the Mass Media, even though he uses the phrase "popular mass culture."
Pop Art Characteristics
Understanding the meaning of the word 'Pop Art' can aid in illuminating the movement's fundamental themes. In a letter to his pals, artist Richard Hamilton described the "characteristics of Pop Art." In simple terms, he defined Pop Art as follows: Popular (intended for a large audience), Transient (short-term solution), Expendable (easily forgotten), Low-cost, Mass-produced, Young (intended for youth), Witty, Sexy, Gimmicky, Glamorous, Big business Pop Art is generally recognized by its use of popular, consumer icons, whether they are everyday products like the simple tin of beans in Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans 1962 or legendary celebrities like Marilyn Monroe in James Rosenquist's Marilyn Monroe, I.
"Pop artists made imagery that anyone passing down Broadway could recognize in a split second - comics, picnic tables, men's pants, celebrities, shower curtains, refrigerators, Coke bottles," Warhol explained, referring to all the modern elements artists had previously tried to avoid in their work.
Indeed, in Pop Art, branded or commercial symbolism is a prominent motif. Logos and impersonal imagery were used to support the concept that art may be inspired by everything and anything, not simply history, mythology, or morality. Bold colors, especially primary colors like red, blue, and yellow, are frequently used in Pop Art. The colors were typically vivid and similar to those found in a comic strip. These colors mirrored the colorful, popular culture surrounding them, rather than representing the artist's inner world or personality, as they had in prior, traditional art forms. Hard-edged compositions are a common motif employed to counteract Abstract Expressionism's 'painterly looseness.' As a result, many Pop Art pieces are constructed out of separate or broken shapes. Objects could also be satirized by expanding them to almost ridiculous sizes, according to certain artists.
What distinguishes the Pop Art movement from others?
When Andy Warhol said that artists neglected to notice all the fantastic modern things that everyone else noticed, he was highlighting the fact that art at the time was completely divorced from real life and real people, and that the concern with the brushstroke had produced an aura of exclusivity.
One of the things that distinguished Pop Art was its decision to focus on such "actual" and "current" subject matter, a move that Modernist critics openly despised. By bridging the gap between popular culture and classical art, Pop Artists blurred the lines between 'low' and 'high' art, changing the traditional parameters of what defines art and what it means to be an artist.
The Pop Art movement is significant because it made art accessible to the general public rather than just the wealthy. The work was recognized and admired by the general public since the style was inspired by commercial figures and cultural situations. Finally, there was an art form that was not just relevant but also approachable to all. Pop Art was 'art for the people' in some ways.
What's the difference between Pop Art in the United States and Pop Art in the United Kingdom?
During the 1950s and 1960s, the tempting 'American Dream' of success, beauty, and money fueled a culture of celebrity worship in the United States. The introduction of television into nearly every home in the United States had a profound impact on the country's cultural environment. The faces and thoughts of US singers, athletes, actresses, and politicians hailing the new-American era were plastered all over the country.
While artists in the United States were motivated by what they saw and experienced in their own culture and society, Pop Art in the United Kingdom was largely influenced from outside. From an outsider's perspective, British Pop Art liberally borrowed language, imagery, and objects from postwar Americana.
British artists created art that yearned for – generally ironically – the glossy American Dream extolled on television, newspapers, and in advertising, fueled by a desire to escape a barely healed, post-war bankrupt nation.
Pop Art and Artists
- Andy Warhol
- David Hockney
- Richard Hamilton
- Roy Lichtenstein
David Hockney's A Bigger Splash
A large splash of water caused by an invisible man who has just dived in from a diving board disturbs a swimming pool beside a new house. When Hockney was lecturing at the University of California, Berkeley, he painted it between April and June 1967. The painting was called after Jack Hazan's fictionalized 1973 biopic, A Bigger Splash, which focused on the demise of Hockney's romance with Peter Schlesinger.
Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans
Though Campbell's Soup Cans resemble the mass-produced, printed advertisements that inspired Warhol, the canvases are hand-painted, and the fleur de lys pattern that adorns the bottom border of each can is hand-stamped. By meticulously duplicating the identical image across each canvas, Warhol emulated the repetition and uniformity of advertising.
Hopeless by Roy Lichtenstein
A vulnerable teary-eyed young woman who appears anxious is depicted in the Hopeless painting. The woman takes up most of the space on the canvas. Roy, on the other hand, made some changes to the original painting by using bright and colorful colors, as well as wavy and aggressive lines, to heighten the emotions in the scenario.
The painting Hopeless connects with the viewer, and it is via this medium that Lichtenstein was able to convey his message to the audience. Although the painting came from a humorous source, the artist sought to show the tension that women face, particularly when it comes to romance concerns. The woman in the artwork is young and attractive, yet her eyes are teary. To convey her beauty to the viewer, Lichtenstein employed vivid colors in her hair, as well as a brief comment about what is on her mind.
Just What Is It That Makes Today's Homes So Different, So Appealing? by Richard Hamilton
Richard Hamilton's collage depicts a living room loaded with items and ideas that, according to Hamilton, were suffocating postwar consciousness. The figure of a bodybuilder clutching a large lollipop with the word 'POP' written on it grabs the viewer's attention. As a result, it's no surprise that this collage is frequently referred to as the first example of Pop Art.
LOVE by Robert Indiana
I Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark in Indiana, and when he went to New York in 1954, he adopted the name of his home state. His LOVE artworks exemplified this type of Pop-inspired obsession with the power of everyday words. Indiana's LOVE is one of Pop Art's most well-known pictures. In 1965, it was created as a Christmas card for The Museum of Modern Art. LOVE has appeared in the form of prints, paintings, sculptures, banners, rings, tapestries, and stamps since then.
I was a toy for the wealthy by Eduardo Paolozzi
Paolozzi, a sculptor and artist from Scotland, was a prominent figure in Britain's postwar avant-garde. His college I Was a Rich Man's Plaything, which combined pop culture elements such as a pulp fiction novel cover, a Coca-Cola poster, and a military recruitment advertisement became an important foundational piece for the Pop Art movement. The piece demonstrates British Pop Art's slightly darker tone, which focused on the contrast between the luxury and affluence of American popular culture and the economic and political hardships of British reality. Paolozzi stressed the impact of technology and mass culture on high art as a member of the loosely connected Independent Group. Paolozzi's use of collage displays the influence of Surrealist and Dadaist photomontage, which he used to reproduce the bombardment of mass media images that people encounter in their daily lives.
What is it about today's homes that makes them so unique and appealing? By Richard Hamilton
Hamilton's collage was a pivotal work in the development of Pop Art, and it is frequently considered as the movement's very first work. Hamilton's photograph was used in the catalog for the exhibition This is Tomorrow at London's Whitechapel Gallery in 1956, as well as on posters advertising the show.
Viewers will see an updated Adam and Eve (a bodybuilder and a burlesque dancer) surrounded by all the modern amenities, such as a vacuum cleaner, tinned ham, and television, in the collage. Hamilton produced a domestic interior setting using a variety of cutouts from magazine advertising that simultaneously glorified materialism and condemned the excess that was symbolic of the American postwar economic boom years.
Electoral College President by James Rosenquist
Rosenquist, like many other Pop artists, was enthralled by the popularization of political and cultural personalities in the media. The artist displays John F. Kennedy's face within a jumble of consumer objects, including a yellow Chevrolet and a slice of cake, in his painting President-Elect. Rosenquist made a collage out of the three pieces, which he then photo-realistically duplicated on a massive scale.
According to Rosenquist, "The image was taken from a campaign poster for John F. Kennedy. People who promoted themselves piqued my curiosity at the time. Why did they place a self-advertisement on the wall? That was his appearance. And all he promised was a half-car and a slice of stale cake." Rosenquist's approach of integrating separate images through techniques of blending, interlocking, and juxtaposition, as well as his expertise at including political and social commentary utilizing popular iconography, are exemplified in this large-scale piece.