Interesting Facts about Gustave Courbet
Who was Gustave Courbet?
Gustave Courbet was a pivotal figure in the Realism movement in France throughout the nineteenth century. He was an inspiration for the impressionists and cubists and was noted for his unusual style of painting (particularly during the 1840s). Though he attended painting schools as a child, he was primarily a self-taught artist who learned by emulating the masters' work.
He was not a fan of his time's traditional art styles. Still-lifes, nudes, landscapes, and hunting scenes were among the subjects of his paintings. He was an outspoken opponent of Romanticism in art, preferring instead to paint simply what could be seen. He was a free-spirited and daring artist who defied the norms of the day. Traditionally, only historical and mythological subjects were shown on big scales, but he used large canvas to depict everyday people and activities. His later art had a sensual quality to it. With his rebellious attitude, he frequently courted controversy. He was a socialist who took part in political activity for which he was sentenced to prison. He later went into self-imposed exile in Switzerland, where he remained until he died in 1877.
In the late 1840s, Courbet's art became popular.
During the 1840s, the artist submitted several pieces for an exhibition at the Paris Salon. During this time, he also journeyed to Belgium and the Netherlands in search of fresh inspiration.
The young artist was particularly inspired by the works of Dutch Masters such as Rembrandt and Frans Hals, who encouraged him to continue on his realistic path. While some of these were accepted by the Salon jury, such as a "Self-Portrait with Black Dog" in 1844, it wasn't until 1849 that he received the respect he deserved with "After Dinner at Ornans." This piece catapulted his career when he received a gold prize at the Paris Salon, which meant that his work no longer needed the approval to be exhibited there.
He was born in a modest town in France's eastern region.
Gustave Courbet was born in the little village of Ornans in the Doubs department of eastern France on June 12, 1819. He grew up in a well-to-do household with a farming background.
He had three sisters who served as the young boy's initial models as he strove to improve his drawing skills. His maternal grandfather had fought in the French Revolution a few decades before, so his family was politically active and vocal. Courbet was a socialist throughout his life, and his political beliefs would ultimately lead to his demise later on.
One of his most well-known pieces was turned down for a public event.
One of the most astonishing aspects about Gustave Courbet is that, despite his adamant opposition to painting historical paintings, the sort of painting preferred by the pairs Salon, he was able to gain prominence early in his career. Following his early success in 1849, he was able to gain recognition for works he submitted in the early 1850s.
"The Stone Breakers," "Peasants of Flagey," and "A Burial at Ornans," for example, were all destroyed during World War II. The Burial at Ornans, in particular, was lauded and is now considered one of his most famous paintings, showing his grand uncle's actual burial in 1848. Courbet was surprised that none of the 14 paintings he submitted for the 1855 Exposition Universelle on the Champs Élysées had been altered.
Even "The Artist's Studio," which he felt to be his magnum effort, was turned down. Unable to cope with the rejection, he decided to build a pavilion named the "Pavillon du Réalisme" directly adjacent to the main display (The Pavilion of Realism). Although it was a failure, it served as a forerunner to the "Salon des Refusés," an exhibition of rejected artworks.
He spent the last years of his life in Switzerland as an alcoholic.
His life didn't go south in the later years of his life because of rejection. It all began in 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, when he lost control of his horses and became embroiled in politics. He addressed a letter to the Ministry of National Defense requesting that Napoleon Bonaparte's triumph column on the Place Vendôme be relocated to Les Invalides, where he believed it belonged.
Following France's loss in the war, the Paris Commune, a political movement that briefly gained control of the city, took his demand seriously and toppled the column. He had to run when the Paris Commune was suppressed in 1871 but was eventually apprehended and imprisoned for six months. Following his release, France's newly formed government issued him a bill for the reconstruction of the Vendôme Column, which totaled 323,091 francs and 68 centimes.
In 1873, he escaped to Switzerland and agreed to pay 10,000 francs per year until he reached the age of 91. He died of liver illness at the age of 58, a day before he was expected to pay the first installment, on December 31, 1877, due to heavy drinking.
Established painters appreciated Gustave Courbet's work, which was one of the main reasons he and his realistic approach to art were reasonably popular from the start.
Eugène Delacroix, the founder of the French Romantic School, and American artist James Abbott McNeill Whistler were among his admirers.
"The Artist's Studio" (1855) was even deemed a masterpiece by Delacroix.
He rapidly established his style based on what he saw in the actual world.
When he was in his early twenties, Courbet came to Paris in search of a career as an artist. He frequented the Louvre Museum, like most aspiring young French artists, to study the works of the great masters in the Louvre's huge collection. During this period of his career, the majority of his works were self-portraits.
As he idealized himself, he was nevertheless highly inspired by the popular Romantic painting trend. This gradually changed, and he began to establish his style based only on what he could see, with no added drama or extra effects.
Courbet was a remarkably diverse painter, capable of depicting almost anything he saw. Landscapes, seascapes, hunting scenes, and still life were among the subjects.
He was also known for shocking his audience by displaying provocative nude females with casual hunting settings and landscapes in his paintings. Because it depicts a lesbian pair in bed, the artwork "Sleep" (1866) can readily be classified as an erotic scene.
This was so unusual at the time that it prompted a police report against an art dealer who displayed it in 1872.
Many of the characters in "The Burial at Ornans" were present during the funeral of Courbet's grandfather.
This painting can be regarded the beginning of the Realism movement, which progressively swept out the Romantic dream world that had dominated the art landscape for decades.
Gustave Courbet was one of the most influential artists of the nineteenth century. He was appreciated by many artists of subsequent generations, not just because he was a pioneer of the Realism painting movement.
His contemporaries thought highly of him, and Claude Monet included him in one of his most renowned paintings, "Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1865-1866)," which is now on exhibit at the Musée d'Orsay.
He also impacted Impressionist and Post-Impressionist artists, as well as laying the framework for early twentieth-century Cubist artists such as Pablo Picasso. Members of the Cubist art movement claimed that "Courbet is the father of the new artists" as a result of this. That is a bold statement to make!
Napoleon I created the Vendôme Column to commemorate his victory in the Battle of Austerlitz on December 2, 1805, which was toppled as a result of the letter sent by Gustave Courbet.
This was written in a letter by Courbet, and it had a terrible effect:
Since the Vendôme Column is a monument devoid of all artistic value, tending to perpetuate by its expression the ideas of war and conquest of the last imperial dynasty, which are repudiated by a republican nation's sentiment, citizen Courbet expresses his wish for the National Defense government to authorize him to dismantle it. Even though Courbet never paid the fine, the column was re-erected after being destroyed by the Paris Commune in 1871 and is now one of the most visible features on the square immediately north of the Tuileries Garden in central Paris.