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Elements And Principles Of Art
Dawit Abeza
Elements And Principles Of Art

Elements And Principles Of Art

What are the elements and principles of art?

The elements of art are color, form, line, shape, space, and texture.

The principles of art are scale, proportion, unity, variety, rhythm, mass, shape, space, balance, volume, perspective, and depth.

Use the elements of art and design – line, shape/form, space, value, color, and texture – to put together a complete composition.

Visual artists use the aspects of art and design as tools.

ELEMENTS OF ART:

Line

A moving point in space defines an art element. Lines might be two-dimensional or three-dimensional, descriptive, oblique, or abstract. In art, a line is essentially a dot or a succession of dots.

A line is formed by the dots, and it can vary in thickness, color, and shape. Unless the artist adds volume or mass to a line, it is a two-dimensional shape.

When an artist employs several lines, the result is a drawing that is more identifiable than a line that creates a form that resembles the shape's outside.

Lines can also be inferred, such as when a hand points up and the viewer's eyes follow it upwards without even seeing a true line.

Shape

A two-dimensional, flat, or height-and-width-limited piece of artwork. Space refers to the region surrounding the art piece's main point and can be positive or negative, shallow or deep, open or closed.

Space refers to the area surrounding an art form; in the case of a structure, it refers to the area behind, over, inside, or adjacent to it.

The shape of a structure or other work of art is determined by the area surrounding it. The children are dispersed around the image, providing space between them and giving each figure its own identity.

Form

A three-dimensional element of art that encloses volume and encompasses height, breadth, and depth (as in a cube, sphere, pyramid, or cylinder).

The free-flowing form is another option. Whether it's the restrictions of a line in a painting or the edge of a sculpture, the form provides structure to a work of art.

It can be two-dimensional, three-dimensional with height and weight restrictions, or free-flowing. In a piece of work, the form also expresses all of the formal components of art.

Value

Tones or colors' brightness or blackness. The lightest value is white, while the darkest value is black. Middle gray is the value that is halfway between these two extremes.

Space

A technique for defining positive and negative areas in a work of art or creating a sense of depth. Space refers to the region surrounding the art piece's main point and can be positive or negative, shallow or deep, open or closed.

Space refers to the area surrounding an art form; in the case of a structure, it refers to the area behind, over, inside, or adjacent to it.

The shape of a structure or other work of art is determined by the area surrounding it. The children are dispersed around the image, providing space between them and giving each figure its own identity.

Color

Color is a three-dimensional art element with three properties: hue, value, and intensity. Hue, value, and saturation are all qualities of color. Red, yellow, and blue are primary hues as well as primary colors.

When two primary colors are combined, secondary hues, also known as secondary colors, resulting in orange, violet, and green.

Texture

An aspect of art that refers to how things feel, or appear to feel, when handled. To the touch, the texture might be rough or smooth, simulating a specific feel or feeling.

The texture of a surface also determines how your eye perceives it, whether it is flat with little roughness or has changed on the surface, simulating rock, wood, stone, or fabric.

With great brushwork and layers of paint, artists gave texture to buildings, landscapes, and portraits, creating the illusion of reality.

Saturation

The degree to which a color is saturated, and when a color is fully saturated, it is in its purest form or most true version.

The three fully saturated hues are the primary colors in their purest form. When white or black is introduced, the color becomes washed out as the saturation diminishes. When a hue is brilliant, it is thought to be at its most intense.

PRINCIPLES OF ART:

Balance, emphasis, movement, proportion, rhythm, unity, and variety; the method through which an artist organizes elements inside a work of art.

Rhythm

A design technique that creates a visual tempo or rhythm by carefully placing repeated motifs in a work of art.

In art, rhythm refers to a sort of repetition that is employed to show movement or expanse.

In a painting of waves smashing, for example, the spectator will notice movement as the wave concludes. Brushwork that is aggressive and directed can help provide movement to a painting.

Balance

A method of blending materials to give a work of art a sense of balance or stability. Asymmetrical and symmetrical are the two main types.

Emphasis (contrast)

A method of combining items to emphasize the distinctions between them. Color, unity, balance, or any other principle or aspect of art utilized to establish a focal point can all be employed to create emphasis.

Artists will utilize accent techniques such as placing a gold ribbon in a dark purple field. The gold text stands out because of the color contrast between it and the dark purple background, making it the focal point.

Proportion

The relationship of particular elements to the whole and each other is referred to as a design principle. The relationship between items in a painting, such as the sky and mountains, is called proportion.

It seems out of proportion if the sky takes up more than two-thirds of the artwork. In art, scale is akin to proportion, and when something is not to scale, it can appear strange. It will appear out of scale if there is a person in the photo with hands that are too huge for their body.

Artists can also employ scale and proportion to their advantage by exaggerating persons or scenery.

Gradation

A technique for merging materials that involves a sequence of progressive adjustments in the elements. (big shapes to little ones, dark to light hues, and so on.)

Harmony

A technique for merging similar parts in an artwork to emphasize their similarity (achieved through the use of repetitions and subtle progressive alterations).

Variety

A design principle focused on contrast or diversity. In a work of art, variety is accomplished by using varied shapes, sizes, and/or colors.

Movement

A design approach that is utilized to generate the appearance and sense of activity while also guiding the viewer's eye around the piece of art.

What are the elements of design?

There are twelve basic principles of design: contrast, balance, emphasis, proportion, hierarchy, repetition, rhythm, pattern, white space, movement, variety, and unity.

These elements work together to create user-friendly, visually appealing, and functional designs.

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